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  1. Odour Control on Livestock and Poultry Farms Factsheet - ISSN 1198-712X - Copyright Queen's Printer for Ontario Agdex#: 700 Publication Date: 12/03 Order#: 03-111 Last Reviewed: 12/03 History: Replaces OMAFRA Factsheet Odour Control on Livestock and Poultry Farms, Order No. 96-103 Written by: Michael Toombs - Rural/Urban Interface Specialist/OMAFRA; PDF Version - 163 KB Table of Contents 1.Sources of Odours 2.Spread of Odours 3.Malodours - Unacceptable Odours 4.Practical Ways to Help Minimize Odour Complaints 5.Relevant OMAF Factsheets In Ontario, more than half the complaints regarding agriculture concern odour. Nuisance odour complaints are exempt from the Environmental Protection Act. However, odours that create health problems are addressed in the Environmental Protection Act. Complaints concerning odours from animal agricultural operations are increasing. The trend toward larger animal facilities with liquid manure systems only intensifies the problem. This Factsheet outlines practical methods to help control odours from barns and manure storages. Many odour control techniques cost nothing more than operator time. These include good housekeeping, good manure management, careful siting of animal housing and manure storages through the use of Minimum Distance Separation (MDS) formulae, and communication between neighbours. Table 1 below contains sample MDS requirements that are calculated as the product of 5 factors including type of farm operation, type of manure system and form of development present or being proposed. If prevention measures fail to stop disputes over farm odours, technology-based approaches to odour control may be necessary. These may be expensive and their effectiveness may vary widely. Current odour control methods include preventing the production, release and transport of odours and odour treatment. Table 1. Sample Minimum Distances Separation for New Farms Neighbouring Land Use or Boundary 1,800 Finishing Hog/Year Covered Manure Storage 60 Milking Cows Open Liquid Tank 10 Horses Open Solid Storage Barn (m) Manure Storage(m) Barn (m) Manure Storage(m) Barn (m) Manure Storage(m) Nearest neighbour’s house 325 325 197 252 79 93 Area zoned agriculturally related commercial or industrial 325 325 197 252 79 93 Area zoned residential or institutional 650 650 394 504 158 186 Rear or side lot lines 65 65 39 50 16 19 Road allowance 81 81 49 63 20 23 Sources of Odours Odours originating from livestock manure are a result of a broad range of over 168 odour-producing compounds. Commonly reported compounds associated with livestock waste include hydrogen sulphide (a rotten egg odour) and ammonia (a sharp pungent odour). Most offensive odours are created by the anaerobic (without air) decay of wet organic matter such as manure, feed or silage. Warm temperatures (Figure 1) enhance anaerobic decay and foul odour production. Odours primarily originate from the animal housing facility, manure handling, silage storage, improperly handled deadstock and decaying organic matter. Odour is measured according to 3 parameters: quality, strength and occurrence. Odour quality is a comparison with a known odour such as rotten eggs or roses. Strength is the amount of fresh air needed to dilute odorous air to the threshold odour level where it can just be detected. Occurrence is the frequency and length of time the odour persists. If the right combination of organic matter, water and warm temperatures exist, there is the potential for foul odours to be created. Figure 1. If the right combination of organic matter, water and warm temperatures exist, there is the potential for foul odours to be created. Spread of Odours Odours can either be broadcast through air as a gas or be absorbed and transported by dust particles. Odours tend to linger in an area on humid, windless days. Odours will dissipate on dry, windy days. Malodours – Unacceptable Odours The main factors affecting the acceptability of farm-generated odours are frequency, duration, offensiveness and sensitivity. Neighbours may tolerate frequent or intense odours that are of short duration and do not linger in the air. Offensiveness and sensitivity to odours varies from person to person. Odours are context dependent – a person's experiences, memories, emotions and visual perceptions all combine in determining whether or not an odour is acceptable. A clean, orderly livestock farm with landscaping is effective in creating a non-offensive situation. Some people are more stressed by the thought of the odours than they are by any actual physical effects from the odours. Practical Ways to Help Minimize Odour Complaints Preventing the Production of Odour through Management There are several management steps that can reduce odour production on the farm such as good housekeeping: • Clean up spilled feed, silage and manure. Even small leaks in feed augers can result in large accumulations of waste feed over time. • Wash manure-caked spreading equipment shortly after use. • Keep animals clean – their warm bodies accelerate anaerobic decay. • Dispose of deadstock promptly and properly in accordance with the Dead Animal Disposal Act. • Minimize dust levels to prevent odours attached to dust particles from escaping through the ventilation system. • Keep organic matter such as feed or bedding dry. Anaerobic decay, the major process of odour generation, is inhibited if moisture content is kept below 40%. • Grade the farmstead to avoid standing water. Direct clean water away from manure piles. • Check regularly for leaks from drinking water supplies – especially in chicken and turkey broiler barns. • Ensure the ventilation systems are in good working order. Good ventilation helps to keep barns dry. Preventing the Release and Transport of Odours Odour production cannot be completely prevented on a farm. Therefore, most odour control methods are designed to keep or dissipate odours within the farm boundary, thus minimizing odour complaints from surrounding neighbours. Odours from solid manure, that is, manure below 75% – 80% moisture content, generally do not generate complaints. However, excessive moisture in solid manure can cause odours because it creates anaerobic conditions. To prevent wet conditions: • Divert clean water away from manure storages. • Reduce water bowl spillage. • Obtain drier manure by adding bedding to absorb water. • Roof a solid manure storage to exclude precipitation. • For liquid manure storages the intensity of odours generated increases in direct proportion with the amount of top surface area. A covered manure storage generates almost no odours. A circular concrete tank with the same storage capacity as a liquid earthen manure storage generates less odours than an earthen manure storage since it has less top surface area. For example, consider a barn that needs 1,071 m3 (37,800 ft.3) of manure storage capacity. The barn would require a circular concrete storage 3.7 m (12 ft.) deep by 21 m (69 ft.) diameter, which would have a surface area of 350 m2 (3,740 ft.2). A rectangular earthen design for the same capacity with 2.5:1 inside slopes would be 3.7 m (12 ft.) deep by 24.4 m (80 ft.) wide by 42 m (138 ft.) long with a top surface area of 1025 m2 (11,040 ft.2), almost 3 times the surface area of the circular concrete storage. Crust formation limits the exposed liquid surface area and helps reduce odours as shown in Figure 2. As odorous air passes through a crust or permeable cover, the moist aerobic environment within the crust helps to break down odours. Floating permeable covers that imitate crust formation effectively reduce odours. There are 2 types of floating permeable covers – natural and manmade. Natural covers usually consist of blown chopped straw or peat moss. The natural covers tend to sink after a while. There is some ongoing research into spraying straw with mineral oil to help keep it afloat longer. Manmade covers of geo-textiles are available commercially. Filling liquid manure storages from the bottom minimizes agitation and preserves the crust to help reduce odours. High fibre feeds also promote crusting. Many existing storages can easily be altered to be filled from the bottom. Crust formation on a liquid manure storage. Figure 2. Crust formation on a liquid manure storage. Biofilters Biofilters for barn ventilation systems work on a similar principle as a floating cover on a manure storage. The air ventilated from the barn is screened for dust and pressurized in a plenum under the biofilter. The air is then forced through a box usually containing a filter medium of woodchips, peat moss or compost, achieving odour reductions of 60% – 80%. As the airflow tends to dry out the filter medium, it needs to be regularly sprayed with water. The filter medium also has to be changed every 2–5 years. Dust clogging can be a problem with some biofilters. While effective for controlling odour, biofilters are expensive to install and operate. Windbreaks Trees and other windbreaks around manure storages help reduce top surface agitation by the wind action and help promote vertical air mixing and dilution of the odours. This further reduces the transport of odours to neighbours. Visual screening provided by trees and other windbreaks also help reduce the number of odour complaints. In-Barn Conditions For liquid manure, the lower the solids content of the manure the lower the odour generated. Reducing feed spillage keeps the solids content down. Solid/liquid separation can be very effective in reducing odours. The use of silica fume cements in the barn reduces odours and increases the durability of concrete. Silica fume cement is 100 times finer than Portland cement, and when combined with a low water cement ratio, the size of pores in the concrete is reduced to less than .01 micron. Since E. coli bacteria is typically 1 micron in diameter, it is unlikely to penetrate into the concrete. Concrete using silica fume cement should have better bacteria control, be easier to clean, and produce fewer odours. For short-term in-barn manure storage systems, odours start to build up in 4 or 5 days, and reach a peak in approximately 20 days. If possible, it is recommended to transfer the manure to a longer term manure storage at least every 7 days and more frequently if possible for odour control. Treating Odours If methods for containing odours within the boundary of the farm are insufficient, odour treatment methods may be necessary. Manure and other organic matter can be treated biologically or chemically to reduce odour potential. Biological treatments include aerobic (with air) systems such as aeration, and anaerobic (without air) systems such as anaerobic digesters. Other methods include using additives designed to chemically or biologically alter, reduce or mask odours. In aeration, air is introduced into the liquid manure storage by mechanical agitation or under pressure with compressors or blowers. The resulting aerobic breakdown of manure is much less odorous, although the process requires a lot of electrical power. Digestion under controlled anaerobic conditions (Figure 3) speeds up a natural biological decay process to create biogas and a low-odour, biologically stable manure. Under controlled conditions at elevated temperatures the anaerobic digestion is more complete, odorous compounds are created and are then converted to odourless biogas. While digesters are only beginning to become economically effective in gas production, they have been very effective in reducing odours. This schematic cross-section shows the flow of liquid manure from storage, through the anaerobic digestion process, then finally to gas storage. Figure 3. This schematic cross-section shows the flow of liquid manure from storage, through the anaerobic digestion process, then finally to gas storage. Additives Odour control additives have been designed to mask, neutralize or alter, either chemically or biologically, odours or odour production. By strictly following the manufacturer's instructions, the correct additive under the proper conditions may reduce odour emissions. Research has generally been inconclusive on the effectiveness of additives. Cost and the duration of effective odour treatment are factors when considering the use of additives. Fly ash has been tested as a stabilizing agent that can inhibit the production of odours. The ashes are rich in calcium which, when added to manure, will raise the pH to 12 where all microbial activity ceases and sulphur compounds are fixed. About 250 kg of fly ash per m3 (2.5 lbs./imp. gal) of manure is required. After an initial strong ammonia odour, the treatment lasts for approximately one month. Similar to fly ash, lime can also be used to raise the pH of manure to reduce odours. Relevant OMAF Factsheets See OMAF's website for factsheets on related topics. . For more information: Toll Free: 1-877-424-1300 E-mail: Site Help Contact Us Accessibility Privacy Help Notices © Queen's Printer

  2. Solution, pen the hogs in air conditioned and controlled air buildings, all waste contained in structures for methane production, and cleaning, cleaning, cleaning of the pigs. If not, the neighbors have the right to find a counter solution for the smell which the corporate farm, owner cannot complain about. In other words, contain them to their farm and let only they have the smells. Commercial air containment. The seemingly ever-present challenge associated with raising hogs is keeping odors at bay. The questions commonly associated with odor control are basic: •What are the realistic expectations for odor in the building, at the site of production? •Where does the odor originate? •How difficult will it be to manage the odor? •What is the cost of controlling the odor and where will I get the most bang for my buck? Jay Harmon, with the agricultural and bioengineering department at Iowa State University, offered 10 steps to managing odor during an environmental seminar at the World Pork Expo in early June. Step #1: Siting decisions — The proposed siting of hog production facilities is all about location, Harmon emphasizes. The distance to nearby dwellings, the size of the pork production facility and the exposure angles — from the facility to a residence — must be taken into account. Before siting, study the historical prevailing winds for direction and frequency during various times of the year. Understand the percentage of time (hours) that a dwelling will experience the “downwind” direction of prevailing winds. The exposure angle — the angle when neighbors are directly downwind — should be documented. The terrain will affect the intensity of the odor. “As winds die down, wind flows down through valleys,” he explains. “Acceptable distances are not equal in all directions,” reminds Harmon. “In Iowa, predominant summer winds are from the south and south-southeast. A facility to the south of a neighbor at a given distance has a greater odor impact than one to the north at the same distance.” Selecting the proper site for a new hog production unit is one of the cheapest odor-control options available, he adds. Step #2: Manure handling — Injecting manure can reduce odor 50-75% compared to broadcasting. The cost is roughly $0.003/gal. Umbilical systems can be less visible than tankers because of the difference in road traffic. “This may make handling manure more ‘invisible,’” he says. Step #3: Dietary manipulation — Harmon feels this is one of the easiest options to implement for reducing odors. Cutting crude protein levels and bumping crystalline amino acids can reduce odors 20%, he says. More strategies will emerge. Step #4: Cover manure storage — Whether permeable (straw, cornstalks, geotextiles) or impermeable (high-density polyethylene or HDPE), covers help prevent gases from escaping. Permeable covers can reduce odors by 40-50% at a cost of 10-25¢/sq. ft., Harmon explains. Impermeable covers are more costly at $1.00-1.40/sq. ft., but they also improve odor reduction by 70-85%. Snow and rain accumulation on the impermeable covers must be managed, he adds. Step #5: Visual barriers and eye appeal — “Well-kept sites get fewer complaints,” Harmon relates. “It serves as a reflection on the overall management of the site.” The fact of the matter is, people complain less when the hog operation is out of sight. “Although it is very difficult to quantify the impact or costs, the adage ‘out-of-sight, out-of-mind’ is real,” he assures. Step #6: Pit ventilation — The more odorous air comes from the pit, contributing more than half of the total odor during critical periods. Pit ventilation accelerates volatilization and offers limited benefits to indoor air quality. “Inlet management is more critical with pit ventilation, and remember, a full pit essentially eliminates pit ventilation,” reminds Harmon. Step #7: Biofilters — Drawing exhaust air through a biofilter bed can reduce odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and dust. Like any odor-curbing technology, the biofilters must be managed properly, particularly the moisture content. Odor levels can be reduced 65-80% at an estimated cost of about 42¢/finished pig. Precautions must be taken to ensure the biofilter design is compatible with the ventilation system. Whole-house ventilation through a biofilter is not practical, he explains. Step #8: Vegetative environmental buffers — A properly designed vegetative filter helps lift and mix odorous gases. A wedge-shaped design, with shorter shrubs/trees planted in the outside rows and progressively taller trees in the rows closer to the buildings, will help with this lifting and mixing action. Naturally, these barriers take years to establish, with the cost ranging from 6-10¢/pig over 20 years, he estimates. A side benefit is the vegetation provides a visual barrier, but be aware of the impact these trees and shrubs can have on a naturally ventilated facility. Step #9: Chimneys — These relatively low-cost design features promote air mixing and reduce the noise of the ventilation system. Height of the chimney is important for effectiveness, as is the cross-sectional area. Step #10: Other odor deterrents: •Additives — Most effective in dilute systems; effectiveness varies from zero to about 20%. •Aeration — 40 to 80% effective in dilute systems with costs averaging about $4/pig. •Barriers — They force exhaust air up and reduce dust at ground level; Harmon estimates this relatively low-cost option is about 20% effective. •Biocurtains — Remove dust. •Digestion — Requires a large investment, but considered 50-80% effective in reducing odors; nutrient neutral. •Oil sprinkling — Considered 40-50% effective; can create slippery conditions; commonly not automated. Harmon says focus on the simple solutions first. “Consider management as well as cost. If you are building new facilities, spend time focused on proper siting. Consider covering or protecting outside manure storage. And be careful with manure application. Remember, you are hauling odor to your neighbor's doorstep.”

  3. The answer to this is place special fumigators toremove or dissipate the smell from his farm, perhaps blowing a counter smell onto his farm that is nontoxic touche

  4. Oh yeah another bar/eattery woo hoo!!! so with all the people moving back downtown when will the mall give them stuff they may go to because they need it. like a target, hardware store, something unique to downtown Indy oh wait we only do something after we see it successfully done somewhere else.

  5. Pork shouldn't be eaten, plain and simple. It's not good for you, it's an incomplete protein and has been proven again and again to be an unsafe product for consumption in the long term. Standard farms are no longer a simple "we're raising a few hogs here" type of operation, these industrial hog farms are deadly for EVERYONE, the air, the ground water everything ends up completely polluted and ruined for the next 50 years. I feel sorry for these people and they certainly have the right to a "Quality of Life" suit and this judge is about as fair as what comes out of the hogs when they've been fed corn.