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Controversy brews over judging charter performance

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Here’s a story problem to baffle any high school math student:

At one school, called Fountain Square Academy, half the high school students passed the state English exam required for graduation and nearly half passed the required math exam.

charter Freshman Deonte Taylor focuses on a test at Indy Met High School, a charter school trying to boost its students’ standardized test scores. (IBJ Photo/ Perry Reichanadter)

At a second school, called Indianapolis Metropolitan High School, only one in three students passed the English exam and fewer than one in 20 passed the math test.

If you had to close one of the two schools, which would you choose?

When Indianapolis Mayor Greg Ballard tackled this problem as part of his regular evaluation of city-sponsored charter schools, he granted Indy Met seven more years of life and gave Fountain Square the ax.

IBJ.COM EXTRA
For earlier installments of the Testing Reform series, including photo galleries and videos, click here.

If that sounds like so much “new math” to you, it’s because there’s much more story to this problem. There is little agreement—but lots of politics and complex statistics—on how to define success and failure in Indiana’s public schools.

That disagreement lies at the crux of the current legislative fight over a series of Republican proposals designed to expand the number of charter schools, which receive public funds but operate independent of traditional school districts. The controversial measures also aim to make all Indiana public schools operate more like charters, with freedom from many state regulations, less influence from teachers’ unions, and more competition for students.

Proponents’ goal is to make all Indiana public schools perform better against their peers around the world. But performance has proven a slippery notion in an education system designed more than a century ago to give all children access to a school. Whether the school delivers a quality education is another matter.

Nearly all agree that numbers alone—whether pass rates on standardized tests, year-to-year-growth in test scores, or graduation rates—cannot tell the whole story of a school, traditional or charter. Yet without them, legislators and regulators have no way to hold schools accountable or push them to improve.

“We know that the public education infrastructure has done an excellent job of making sure that all kids have a place to go,” said Karega Rausch, the city’s charter schools director under both Republican Ballard and Democrat Bart Peterson. “But now we’re in a global economy, a globally competitive economy, and now we need to make sure that every kid has an excellent place to go.

“Everybody is trying to define that, but there isn’t a common definition.”

Indeed, legislators, regulators, researchers, principals and even parents voice a variety of visions for success in public schools of all kinds. Oftentimes, those visions are only indirectly related to academic performance.

“The success of schools is that kids do not fall through the cracks,” said Danville resident Candy Lefler, who enrolled her son Daniel at Indy Met instead of the public high school there because he wasn’t making friends. “A successful school is one that helps the kids function in society when they leave.”

charter dem barsJason Dorsey and his wife chose Indianapolis Public Schools over charter schools for their four kids when they moved here from Seattle in 2003 because he said charters were “unproven,” and they felt a sense of “civic responsibility.”

“This is our city. These are our schools,” said Dorsey, pastor of Redeemer Presbyterian Church at 16th and Delaware streets.

He praised the IPS magnet schools his kids have attended, as well as the social skills they develop interacting with children from backgrounds more troubled than their own.

“Our kids need to learn to live in the real world,” he said.

‘Tiny, tiny differences’

Despite Republicans’ confidence in charter schools’ potential to improve public education, quantitative studies have consistently shown their performance to be not much different from traditional schools’.

Charter supporters hailed a March report from Stanford University’s Center for Research on Education Outcomes, or CREDO. It showed that Indiana’s charter school students overall were showing small—but statistically significant—growth when compared to their traditional-school peers as a group.

The comparison was sophisticated, matching nearly 9,000 charter students against traditional elementary- and middle-school pupils of similar ethnicity, income levels and test scores. It then compared the improvement in test scores of each “matched pair” over four years.

“The CREDO study shows that we have obviously provided options where it has changed kids’ lives,” said Indianapolis Republican Rep. Bob Behning, chairman of the House Education Committee.

The study also found that, when considered individually, most Indiana charter schools are improving students’ results at about the same rate as comparable traditional schools. In math, only one out of every four charter schools produced student growth at rates significantly faster than traditional schools. In reading, two out of every five charters produced gains notably greater than the traditional-school average.

However, Indiana’s charters performed much better than charters in 15 other states studied by CREDO. Among charters outside Indiana, fewer than one in five produced significant growth in math. By contrast, more than a third of charters produced significantly worse gains than their traditional school peers.

No charters in Indiana were found to produce significantly worse growth in math.

But Jonathan Plucker, an Indiana University professor who has led several evaluations of Indiana’s charter schools, said the gains shown by the CREDO study were equivalent to students’ answering just one more question correctly than their public school peers.

That’s not much different from the conclusion he and a team of IU researchers drew in a 2008 study of Indiana charter schools, which used a similar “matched-pair” analysis to compare pass rates on the state ISTEP test. It showed a slight advantage for traditional public schools, which Plucker’s study called “no practical difference.”

“These are tiny, tiny differences,” Plucker said of the CREDO study. “There’s no way you could look at those differences and say we’ve reached the Promised Land.”

Different definitions

All told, the state’s 62 charter schools—clustered mainly in Indianapolis, Gary and Fort Wayne—have 23,500 students, with another 3,200 on waiting lists, according to the Indiana Public Charter Schools Association. Although charters must accept all applicants, they can set a cap on enrollment.

Charters receive about $7,000 in state funding for each student—money that otherwise would have gone to the traditional school district the student attended, fueling additional controversy. But charters can’t get public funding for expenses like buildings and transportation, so many schools also try to sign up donors or sponsors to cover costs.

Schools’ financial health is another factor officials use to evaluate their success, but no matter the numbers—in budgets or on test results—charters cannot survive without students.

Parents must choose to enroll their children in charters, a reality that means most schools attract a high percentage of students who have struggled in traditional public schools.

Tiffany Montgomery decided to pull her son, Deiondre Bankhead, out of Northwest High School, part of IPS, because she said his grades had dropped and she felt he wasn’t being challenged.

“When he was in IPS, he didn’t have homework his entire freshman year. What freshman do you know that doesn’t have homework?” said Montgomery, a single mother with two other kids. “Do you know what Northwest’s explanation was? ‘We don’t give the students homework because they don’t do the homework.’”

She heard about Indy Met when she went to a graduation party for a cousin who had just finished there. She liked what she heard and enrolled Deiondre. She said his grades have now risen from D’s and F’s to C’s, B’s and some A’s. He also scored in the top 25th percentile on the state algebra exam required for graduation.

charter dem pies 3dWhat she really raves about, however, is the individual attention from teachers and counselors. Deiondre’s teacher last year, Chad Miller, called while on Christmas break in Florida to give Montgomery the news about Deiondre’s test scores. And twice now, counselors at Indy Met have paid Montgomery’s utility bill when her finances have been overwhelmed by hospital bills for her 3-year-old daughter, who has cancer.

“Success for me is a teacher, or anyone in that position, when they spend a great deal of time with him,” Montgomery said.

Montgomery has since recommended Indy Met to about 15 other people, including her sister Toi Westfield. She enrolled her son Rashaude there after he struggled with behavioral problems at IPS and was sent to the district’s Coleman Academy for Alternative Education.

“I felt like I needed to get him somewhere where he could get more attention,” said Westfield, a hair stylist. She gets a call about once a week from Rashaude’s counselor at Indy Met, updating her on both his struggles and his successes.

That kind of work with troubled kids has helped Indy Met produce graduation rates of nearly 80 percent after six years—a touch below the state average. By contrast, IPS graduates just 51 percent of its students over six years. And at Fountain Square Academy, only 27 percent graduate in six years.

“[Indy] Met is taking some of the least-advantaged students in our city and doing very strong work with them,” Ballard said at a March 18 news conference, where he also announced the closure of Fountain Square Academy.

But while Indy Met teachers built close relationships with students, the project-oriented approach was not producing great academic results—at least as measured by standardized test scores.

Parents, students and administrators all say there was a lot of wasted time each school day. Seeing kids “not on task” so frustrated Jim McClelland, CEO of school sponsor Goodwill Industries of Central Indiana, that last fall he said he would pull Goodwill’s $250,000-a-year subsidy of the school if things didn’t improve.

School officials responded by overhauling Indy Met’s approach midyear in hopes that a more traditional class structure would improve students’ performance. That’s the kind of flexibility supporters say gives charters an edge.

Even so, many charters have struggled with enrollment and retention. Not until this school year did Indy Met exceed its enrollment goal, retaining seven out of 10 students from the previous year.

By contrast, one of Fountain Square’s failings was that only four out of every 10 students enrolled for at least two consecutive years. Its enrollment has fallen short of its targets every year. And its rate of parent satisfaction averaged about 10 percentage points lower than that of Indy Met, according to Ballard’s office.

“For Fountain Square, really, there’s a continuing pattern that we didn’t see changing,” Ballard said.

charter dem piesAccountability in action?

Margaret Raymond, the Stanford researcher who authored the CREDO study, acknowledged that “certainly not all” charter schools have lived up to their promise.

But she sees great hope because at least some charters have proven wrong the 40-year-old consensus in education circles that teachers and schools are powerless to overcome the devastating impacts of poverty and broken homes on students’ academic performance.

“When Roger Bannister broke the four-minute mile, he produced proof it was possible and opened up a whole new horizon of endeavor,” Raymond wrote in an e-mail. “That’s what I see with hundreds of charters that are high-performing [both in achievement and growth] with populations that have previously been discounted as incapable.”

However, Raymond also has argued that poor-performing charter schools must be closed. That has proven easier said than done, both in Indiana and elsewhere.

“We were supposed to have so many charter schools and then evaluate. That was supposed to happen and it did not happen,” said Indianapolis Rep. Greg Porter, the ranking Democrat on the House Education Committee. He added of charters, “Hold them accountable as you do traditional public schools.”

Only two charter schools have been forced to close in Indiana: Flanner House Higher Learning Center in Indianapolis and Urban Brightest Community Academy in Gary. In both cases, financial problems were a factor.

Ballard’s decision to close Fountain Square is the first time a school will be shut down primarily for academic reasons. But this “closure” might have limited practical effect.

After getting pushback on the closure decision from the leaders of Fountain Square—and fielding questions from the staff of Gov. Mitch Daniels—Ballard agreed to allow the Fountain Square board to apply to launch a new school after the current one closes.

However, Fountain Square leaders grew frustrated with Ballard’s handling of the situation, so they have applied to Ball State University—the other charter-school authorizer in Indiana—to open a “new” school in the same building and with the same general program.

Ballard’s staff faulted Fountain Square for not having its students improve fast enough to reach grade-level performance within two or three years. The school has averaged fewer than six in 10 students growing on a pace to catch up to the proficiency expected at their age.

At Indy Met, not every student is catching up, either. But Ballard’s staff regards the school differently, since, unlike Fountain Square, it is not feeding its high school with students from its own middle school, and therefore has less time to help them improve.

Also, Indy Met helped its case by presenting data showing its students getting better on standardized tests every year they were at the school—growing at rates significantly greater than national averages.

“Average growth isn’t enough,” said Rausch, Ballard’s charter schools chief. “They have to make more than average growth in order to catch up.”•

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  • Seeking Advice for a Seventh Grader
    My granddaughter is a student in the traditional school system and is doing very poorly. She is gifted and talented in the creative arts. What school should I put her in to get ready for application to Herron in a year or so. Thanks for any advice.
  • Charter Schools
    As a parent of three chosing a school is not so easy. I have two that go to charter schools and have done excellent, one is in the IVY League Program, On honor Roll, Many awards. My oldest son goes to IPS, he is doing ok and has been to a charter school and not did so well because of behavioral problems. Sometimes it takes the student to relize what he or she needs to do in order to suceed in life. The more I pushed and tried everything to keep him on track, it still did not make a differance. Does this mean that I am a bad parent? My son is now 16 and a freshman at a IPS school. He told me in his own words that he does not think he is learning the material needed to suceed in life. He compared both charter and IPS and he wished that he would have stayed in the charter school because he had that one on one time if he needed extra help and if you were failing you dont have to wait until report cards come out. Teacher really cared and wanted to help him even I could see that as a parent but he did not want to except the help. He did a tour of IMET and asked many questions about the program itself and what do they do to make sure he will make it out of high school and then college. I was very impressed with the way he was concerend about his learning. He is going to give the school a try. As a parent I will support him. Sometimes us parents have to take a step back and let our kids fall and pick themselves back up. All you can do is try to guide them, let them know you are here for them, and most important that you love them. A mother's love is more than anyone can imagine.
  • charter schools
    Why close a charter school that the students pass the ISTEP test. I don't know how they do since most of them does not have state certification in administrate the test. But that is a different matter. I don't like charter schools myself but that is my preference not to. They said that children get expel from charter they go back to IPS well that is all good but if the student get kick out the money for the rest of the year should go to that school for there books and supplies. But they keep it because after September all the money is given to the schools stay there. And that put the other school in finding books for the student and have to spend the money for that. They should go month by month giving money to schools not one lump sum.
  • Double Standard
    Marc - I agree that charter schools should have the same accountablility as Public Schools academically. I do not agree with the statment - The Met needs to keep their own problem students not send them to IPS. First, where do you think those students came from? Second, the parents are the ones who choose where the students go. Not the school. If the student is expelled from IPS, and the parents don't want to move, send them to a charter school. If the student isn't doing well at IPS (some because they're not challenged enough, some because they take longer to learn and need more help, some because they don't apply themselves, and some because they are disciplinary problems) then the parents send them to charter schools hoping for miracles sometimes. Many are not going to do well no matter where they go. Many (those needing challenge or needing more help) are going to excel in charters. Those who have not had the parental support needed from the beginning will not change because parental support has not changed. There's also the ones who need more challenge but cannot thrive under the strict disciplinary program of some charters. My granddaughter was one of these. She wasn't doing well in IPS because it was too easy - she got bored. She was sent to two different charter schools. One treated her as if she were a hard-core criminal the other was going to fail her (with A's and B's) because they didn't like her attitude. Her mother finally put her back in IPS (where she is on the Honor Roll in advanced classes)because she learned IPS wasn't as bad as she thought it was after being in two strict charter schools. But, I think the main factor that changed was that her mother finally got fed up and told her no more - her mother takes her phone everytime her grades start to slip, grounds her, and adds other punishments all effective until her next report card. Her mother also keeps in constant touch with the teachers so she knows what's really going on. Sometimes it takes more than just a change of schools, it takes parents getting fed up and demanding their kids do better - no excuses period!
  • Driver's seat
    Parent's have always been in the driver's seat. Who is responsible for a child's education if not the parent? How does unionization/collective bargianing effect the success or failure of a child's learning? It doesn't!!! Politics. It's about the money and the power. As if things aren't complicated enough, let's add school choice to the educational game. The problem isn't getting smaller; it's growing. And will only end up costing more taxpayer money.Charter schools haven't proven to be any better than public schools.
  • More double standard
    First, I wholeheartedly agree with you (semiotijim) that test scores aren't everything. I disagree that they don't tell us anything but test-taking strategies; I do think they're the best measurement we have of basic understanding and academic progress. But two students might receive the same ISTEP score but have completely different levels of understanding, and many students who can pass ISTEP possess nothing more than a brief recognition of surface knowledge. So I agree with that part of your post. But that is exactly what the education reform movement, and specifically school choice, addresses. Putting parents in the driver's seat (instead of unions or politicians) ensures kids have real options at real education. You mentioned project-based learning. The only project-based learning school in the city is a charter school. They don't test as well as some schools, but parents claim their students are learning a lot more. That makes sense to me, and seems to support what you were saying about creativity and application. School choice takes the politics out of creating a single "right school" way and lets families choose among many school models -- traditional, experimental, liberal arts, militaristic based on student's needs. (And by the way, you're wrong about China. It's a common gripe among business execs and college professors. China, and most of Asia really, focuses much, much more on tests than we do and puts little if any emphasis on personal creativity.)
    • Training Test Takers....
      The education reform discussions in the Indianapolis media outlets is being dominated by too many non educators who frame all aspects of learning in our schools around standardized test scores, while ignoring other equally important forms of learning and educational experience. Itâ??s like an architect designing a cardiology clinic while ignoring the advice of cardiologists.

      According to the Center for Education Statistics, since 2001, a crippling side affect of federal and state mandated high-stakes testing has been a narrowing of the curriculum and marginalization of other forms of learning critical to an education that matters in the 21st Century.

      Let's talk about the nuts and bolts of learning and the effects of narrowed learning experience on children. We know through neurological research conducted by 2000 Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel, that sensory based, experiential learning experiences grow and expand neural networks throughout the brain. Yet, rich, sensory based forms of experiential learning are disappearing fast within our schools, replaced by overly prescriptive, didactic forms of learning that emphasize passive listening, rote memorization, compliance and behaviorist rewards and punishments. Constructivist forms of learning experience and project based learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts and humanities that foster independent thinking, divergent thinking and creativity are being lost. Humans are more than information processing units. We are becoming a nation of robotic test takers. What our children can do with content knowledge besides score well on a standardized test is a major critical educational outcome.

      Despite Jim McClellandâ??s concern that project based learning is a waste of time, many Asian countries, including the Chinese have taken notice and are reforming their education systems to include project based learning as a way to develop the next wave of creative and divergent thinkers. These days, little attention is paid to creativity in the halls of Indiana government (or in the media) where education policy is formed and developed. While school systems across Indiana cut their high quality art and music programs, and science curriculum is focused primarily on text book learning without the experiential component, it is hard to see how Indiana can develop the next crop of creative and divergent thinkers in our current system of education.

      If we are going to unlock the potential of every child, learning experiences that integrate divergent thinking and creativity are critical for a well rounded education. The goal of unlocking the potential of every child cannot be obtained if education policies deprive children of creative learning and imaginative growth experiences. Human beings are hard wired to think and dream in visual images. Ideas and intellectual property dependent upon visual thinkers will become assets in the new economy of the 21st Century.

      The refinement of the imagination as developed through the visual arts will provide future designers, engineers, scientists, entrepreneurs, innovators, professionals and others with the creative edge they will need to compete in an increasingly competitive and uncertain future. Our childrenâ??s creativity is a national resource we cannot afford to waste.

      • Just curious
        If your son was already excelling, then why did you ever enroll him in Indy Met to begin with? If there were non-academic reasons for pulling him out of IPS, then why did you choose to put him back in IPS rather than a different charter school?
      • Indy Met
        you took your child out of Northwest and put him in Indy Met? My experience was just the opposite, Indy Met did not challenge my child at all. He is now a Sophomore at Northwest, and he does have homework. He is once again excelling, as he was before he went to Indy Met. I would never recommend it as a school for any child.
        • Double Standard?
          Marc... Are you willing to apply your standards equally? First, we're about to have one more charter school closed due to academics than is true of all the traditional public schools in Indiana's history. Are you suggesting that we close more traditional public schools that are failing? Second, since the MET is enrolling high school aged students who have dropped out or are on the verge of dropping out (and most other charter schools are enrolling kids who are not doing well in their assigned public schools), will you suggest some compensation to the charter schools (or maybe to the parents or taxpayers) from the traditional public schools that failed these kids in the first place? Finally, would you also demand that DOE interview all the students who leave traditional public schools each year? That's about 10,000 kids per year - and I think their views of the schools that they left could be quite informative.
        • More nanny state
          I guess that parents want schools to pay their utility bills now. When will this stop? Now wonder charter schools have growing enrollment if they are bribing parents by paying their utility bills. Still little or no improved achievement.
        • Met knew for years
          Charter schools need to be held to the same standards as public schools, nothing less. When a student leaves the Met, the DOE needs to interview the student, and find out the real reason? The Met needs to keep their own problem students, not send them to IPS.
          • One Size Does Not Fit All
            When it comes to education, state public schools are not for everyone. For involved, concerned parents who want the best fit for their son's or daughter's education, charter schools offer them another choice, but it is not a panacea. Students get out of education what they put into it. Formal education in Indiana has a fascinating history, and the advent of charter schools is simply an example of how we, as a society, are evolving to meet the educational needs of an ever-changing world.

            Thank you IBJ for your coverage of charter schools.
            A parent and public-school teacher

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